Chapter 1

Why Concrete is an Interesting Material
Purpose of this Monograph
What is Covered
Basic Definitions and Terminology

Chapter 2

An Introduction to the Science of Concrete
Cement
Water
Aggregate
Mineral Admixtures
Reinforcement and Fibers
Chemical Admixtures
Concrete Construction

Chapter 3

Overview - Manufacturing Portland Cement
Cement Chemistry Notation and Mineral Names
Raw Materials for Cement Manufacure
Burning in a Kiln - Clinker Formation
Properties of the Major Cement Minerals
Mineral and Oxide Composition of Cement
Particle Size Distribution of Portland Cement
Types of Portland Cement
Synthetic Minerals Used for Research Purposes

Chapter 4

A Brief History of Concrete and its Impact on Society

Chapter 5

Overview of the Hydration Process
The Induction Period
The Hydration Reactions
Overview - Morphology of Hydration Products
Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H) Gel
Calcium Hydroxide (CH)
Calcium Sulfoaluminate Phases
Other Phases
General Features of the Microstructure
The Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ)
Entrained Air Voids
Effect of Hydration Temperature
Effect of Carbonation
Phase Composition of Portland Cement Paste
An Analysis of Pore Solution Concentration
Solubility of Solid Phases During Hydration

Chapter 6

The Pozzolanic Reaction
Types of Mineral Admixtures
Blended Cements with Silica Fume
Blended Cements with Blast Furnace Slag
Alkali-activated Slag Cement (AAS)
Blended Cements with Fly Ash

Chapter 7

Overview - The Pore Structure of Cement Paste
The Pore System and Classification of Pores
Overview - Physical State of Water in Cement
Drying and the Water Content of C-S-H Gel
The State of Water in Hydrating Paste
Measuring the State of Water with QENS
Pyknometry Measurements of Cement Paste
Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry in Cement Paste
Introduction to Gas Sorption
More on the Gas Sorption Technique
Specimen Preparation and Sorptive Gas
Effect of w/c, Age, and Curing Conditions
Surface Area of Two C-S-H Morphologies
Overview - Applying Scattering to Cement Paste
More on Scattering Applied to Cement Paste
NMR Relaxation (surface area)
Other Techniques

Chapter 8

The Microstructure of C-S-H Gel
The Minerals Tobermoreite and Jennite
Synthetic C-S-H Phases
Structure of C-S-H Gel
Overview - The Solubility of C-S-H Phases
The CaO-SiO2-H2O Phase Diagram
Ion Activity Product of C-S-H in Hydrating OPC
Brief History of Structural Models of C-S-H Gel
Why C-S-H Gel is a Colloidal Precipitate
A Quantitative Colloid Model of C-S-H Gel

Chapter 9

Overview of Kinetics of Hydration of C3S
The Heat of Hydration and Thermal Calorimetry
The Early Reaction - Nucleation and Growth
The Later Reaction - Diffusion Controlled
Effect of Hydration Temperature
Effect of Particle Size
Strength Developement with Time
Accelerating and Retarding Chemical Additives

Chapter 10

Plastic Shrinkage - Preventable
Drying Shrinkage - Reversible and Irreversible
Mechanisms of Reversible Drying Shrinkage
Irreversible Shrinkage and the C-S-H Gel Phase
Aging and Irreversible Shrinkage
Shrinkage-reducing Chemical Admixtures
Autogenous Shrinkage and Self-desiccation
Creep - Similarities to Drying Shrinkage
Creep Mechanisms
Beneficial Creep - Stress Relieving
Deformation Under Combined Loading

Chapter 11

Elastic Modulus
Compressive Strength - Relation to Porosity
Relation to w/c Ratio and Amount of Hydration
Stress-strain Behavior
Failure Models
Tensile Strength - The Weak Point of Concrete
Tensile Strength - Controlled by Largest Flaws
The Plastic Zone and the Size Effect in Concrete
Steel Bar Reinforcement Supports Tensile Stress
Prestressed and Poststressed Concrete

Chapter 12

Durability - Permeability and the Pore System
Factors Affecting the Permeability
Leaching of Concrete by Water or Acid
Expansion of Concrete due to Sulfate Attack
Expansion due to Alkali-aggregate Reaction
Freeze-thaw Damage
Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement
Lifetime Prediction for Concrete Structures
Designing Concrete Structures to Last

Chapter 13

Workability of Concrete - The Effect of W/C
Workability of Concrete - Effect of Aggregate
Segregation and Bleeding
Basic Rheological Models
Measurements of Rheology (viscometer)
Self-consolidating Concrete (SCC)

Advanced Topics

Cement Kiln Dust as an Additive or Activator
More on Scattering Applied to Cement Paste

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